Do consumers who identify as Muslim experience cultural sensitive care (CSC) in the Emergency Department (ED)? A scoping review

Amy Johnston1,5, Mingshuang Ding2,3, Omer Mohammed3, Debbie Massey4
1Department of Emergency Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Metro South,2School of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology,3Department of Emergency Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Hospital,4School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Faculty of Health, University of Sunshine Coast,5School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, The University of Queensland

Background: Lack of awareness about cultural and religious values and beliefs of patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) can compromise patient care and safety. Muslim Australians represent the fastest growing religious demographic group, with over a 77% growth in the last decade [1]. The changing face of Australian population requires that Australian health care consider carefully the dominant western cultural paradigm currently underpinning of health care delivery [2-5]. This is particularly critical in EDs, commonly the entry point into healthcare services
Objectives: This scoping review explored evidence of key components and impacts of cultural safe care (CSC) in EDs for staff and care consumers who identify as Muslim.
Methods: A systematic search using electronic (five databases) and heading searching methods for primary research published between 2006 and 2017 was undertaken; followed by a rigorous screening and quality appraisal process. Included articles were assessed for similarities and differences, the content was grouped and synthesized and tested for clinical salience using the six-staged Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework. The Mixed Method Assessment Tool was used to appraise the quality of included literature.
Results: Three studies were included in the analysis.
Conclusion: Religious beliefs and practices are common. Such beliefs and practices could influence patients’ understanding of their conditions, their acceptance of care delivery, their processes of decision-making, and their commitment to treatment regimens and coping strategies. They could also impact on care seeking behaviours and on family and community acceptance of care delivery. There is a serious lack of evidence around the delivery of culturally safe care in EDs locally and internationally. While many EDs may have procedure documents or staff care guides, it is unclear on what basis these have been developed, as there is minimal published evidence exploring any issues around provision of CSC to Muslim ED care consumers


Amy Johnston is a conjoint senior lecturer in Emergency Care, based between Metro South Emergency Department (PAH) and School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, The University of Queensland. She is deeply committed to bringing research skills and outcomes to emergency staff. She is a widely published and cited academic and registered nurse with experience in a range of research techniques. Her love of clinical research is heartfelt and (hopefully) infectious. She is involved in HDR student supervision and onsite development of ED staff research skills.